In the Issue of the New England Journal of Medicine an investigation of the role of financial incentives and nudges in promoting smoking cessation, with particular emphasis on the importance of loss aversion and pre-commitment is explored.
In the past 40 years, we have seen a revolution in thinking about thinking. The central idea is that human beings depart, in systematic ways, from standard economic approaches to rationality. Because the departures are systematic and predictable, they can be taken into account by researchers, clinicians, and others who want to improve health and reduce premature mortality.
Behavioral scientists have shown, for example, that people are “loss averse”; they tend to dislike losses more than they like corresponding gains. A 5-cent tax on the use of a grocery bag is likely to have a much greater effect than a 5-cent bonus for bringing one’s own bag. People also suffer from “present bias”: they tend to focus on the short term and sometimes see the future as a kind of foreign country (and their future selves as strangers). Most people tend to be unrealistically optimistic, at least about their own prospects. People are sometimes aware of their own biases and are willing to pre-commit to courses of action that will counteract them.
These and related findings help to explain preventable health problems and also suggest a wide range of potentially promising interventions. Some such interventions involve economic incentives, in the form of subsidies and penalties. Others involve “nudges,” in the form of choice-preserving interventions that do not impose any such incentives; information, warnings, reminders, and default rules are examples of nudges. Still other interventions combine the two, as with nudges designed to encourage people to enter programs that impose economic incentives.
In this issue of the Journal, Halpern and his colleagues investigate the role of financial incentives and nudges in promoting smoking cessation, with particular emphasis on the importance of loss aversion and pre-commitment. They explore two kinds of interventions for CVS Caremark employees and their relatives and friends. The first is a “deposit program,” in which smokers deposit $150, which they can get back if they stop smoking, along with $650 extra. The second is a “reward program,” in which people receive $800 if they stop smoking. Halpern et al. are interested above all in two questions. First, when will...Read more..
MD Spiro prides itself on not only offering incredible spirometry products for your practice, but also prides itself on providing articles and industry updates for our customers. Below is a new study showing you trends, R&D progress, and predicted revenues in Asthma and COPD Therapies.
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Today, is Earth Day. A statement released by the White House outlines an initiative to combat the health-related effects of climate change, with an emphasis on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma.
“The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is releasing an Adaptation in Action Report highlighting successful actions state and local leaders are taking to reduce the health impacts of climate change in New York City (NYC), San Francisco, ME, MN, AZ, MI, CA and NY. The CDC is also releasing a Health Care Facilities Toolkit illustrating best practices for promoting resilient health care infrastructure,” the Office of the Press Secretary announced.
In their statement, the White House claimed climate change is not only to blame for extreme weather but also for affecting the quality of life of Americans with pulmonary conditions. Furthermore, they highlighted the poor, children, elderly, and sick as other groups that are especially vulnerable to climate change’s effects.
Extending the Climate Data Initiative — a measure launched in March 2014 which made data on climate change available to prepare communities and businesses — the White House announced they are initiating the “Health Resilience” portion of the plan which would make more than 150 meta-tagged health-related datasets public.
“The new theme aims to empower America’s people, communities, and health sector to more effectively plan, prepare, and strengthen their resilience to the health-impacts of climate change,” the White House announced.
As a part of the Initiative, Propeller Health reported they are building an Asthma Risk Map that will allow Americans to gauge their COPD and asthma exacerbations in relation to the weather. The digital respiratory health company claimed this program will gather data through the use of “sensors [which] collect crowd-sourced data on the time and location of inhaled medication use. Using predictive spatial modeling techniques and open government data resources, Propeller will identify areas in US cities where the impacts of climate change will be felt most acutely by people with chronic respiratory disease over the next 10 to 100 years and beyond.”
Moreover, Propeller Health announced they will also include modifiable factors such as air pollution and transportation to help ascertain which interventions would effectively mitigate COPD- and asthma-related symptoms.
For more information...Read more..
Diabetics now have a new option thanks to the breakthrough new medication AFREZZA®, an inhaled insulin now available by prescription.
The labeling for AFREZZA®, mandates spirometry testing (specifically FEV1) to rule out chronic lung disease prior to initiating therapy, six months after initiation and every year thereafter1.
MD Spiro offers a number of spirometer options and the expertise to easily integrate spirometry into your practice. From the non-reimbursable, PulmoLife at $195 to the full featured MicroLab at $2,295, Micro Direct has a spirometer designed to meet your needs.
American Thoracic Society (ATS) Coding Recommendations
To aid in the coding for spirometry testing, the ATS has determined the appropriate ICD-9 codes and CPT codes. The following table lists examples of how to record these diagnosis and billing codes:Spirometry prior to initiation of therapy 94010* V72.85 + code for underlying condition (diabetes) as additional diagnosis Spirometry after first 6 months of therapy 94010* V58.83 + V58.67 + code for underlying condition (diabetes) as additional diagnosis Annual spirometry testing 94010* V58.83 + V58.67 + code for underlying condition (diabetes) as additional diagnosis
* It may also be appropriate to append this code with the “-32” modifier indicating that the test is “mandated” by the FDA as part of the labeling restrictions for inhaled insulin.2
For additional information, call us today at 800-588-3381.
a All Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) 5-digit number codes, descriptions, number modifiers, instructions, guidelines and other material are Copyright © 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
1. This information is not a substitute for medical advice and does not provide a complete summary of AFREZZA® or any inhaled insulin product or address all considerations in making treatment decisions regarding their use. Always refer to the complete product information provided by the manufacturer.
2. Modifier minute: modifier 32. American Academy of Professional Coders website. http://news.aapc.com/index.php/2013/04/modifier-minute. Accessed December 22, 2014.
AFREZZA® is a registered trademark owned by MannKind Corporation.
Micro Direct, Inc./MD Spiro is not sponsored by nor has any affiliation with Sanofi, US, Inc., MannKind or the AFREZZA® trademark.
Reducing the risks of e-cigarettes to smokers, encouraging the smoking-cessation potential, and restricting access by nonsmokers offer a regulatory trifecta that can be implemented immediately, according to a former FDA official.
The "roadmap" to effective regulation hinges on implementation of the pending FDA deeming rule, which is expected to go into effect later this year. Regulation could begin almost immediately without the need for additional research, Eric Lindblom, JD, of Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, argues in the March issue of Food and Drug Law Journal.
"The minute [the deeming rule] comes out, the FDA has a terrific opportunity to immediately start regulating e-cigarettes," Lindblom, former director of the policy office at the FDA's Center for Tobacco Control, told MedPage Today.
"Right now, it's sort of like the Wild West, as has been often said about e-cigarette regulation in the U.S.," he added. "There really isn't any right now.
"Some in the industry think that any regulation at all is bad, but I think some thoughtful regulation could get rid of the bad actors and minimize the risks and potential harms and actual harms from e-cigarette use. At the same time, they can realize their potential to help people quit or as a less harmful alternative for smokers. Let's let them do that, but let's do it in a careful, regulated way that doesn't cause any unnecessary harms."
By itself, the deeming rule will not reduce the potential harms or maximize potential benefits, he added. Implementation of the rule will extend the FDA's regulatory reach to a wide range of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah or water-pipe tobacco. Whether the agency chooses to exercise its regulatory authority without additional studies remains to be seen.
The debate over e-cigarette regulation has gained momentum as the popularity and sales of the the various devices and products have taken off. In his article, Lindblom notes that public health officials remain divided over the form that regulation should take.
Supporters of a "soft approach" want to ensure that regulation does not become an obstacle to e-cigarettes' potential to help smokers quit or switch to potentially less harmful alternatives to conventional cigarettes. The "hard approach" camp emphasizes that nicotine -- in any form -- remains addictive and poses substantial harms as compared with no smoking. They also have expressed concern that smokers may use...Read more..
The link between smoking and cancer is well known, but there’s another major killer associated with smoking that often goes unnoticed – heart disease.
“Smoking not only causes cancer. Smoking is also a significant contributor to heart disease, the top cause of death for men and women in the U.S.,” said Paul Fitzpatrick, manager of the Defense Health Agency’s (DHA) “Quit Tobacco” program.
DHA wants to spread awareness about how smoking and tobacco use contributes to heart disease. DHA is also promoting heart-healthy lifestyles and tobacco cessation through TRICARE, the health plan for service members and their families, and through the Quit Tobacco website.
Approximately 600,000 people die of heart disease each year in the U.S. – about one in every four deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of these, 107,000 men and women die of heart disease related to smoking and smoke-less tobacco products, deaths that are largely preventable. On average, smokers die 13-14 years earlier than non-smokers.
Here’s how smoking causes heart disease, according to the American Heart Association:
• Reduces the amount of oxygen your heart gets
• Raises your blood pressure
• Speeds up your heart rate
• Makes clots more likely, which can lead to heart attack or stroke
• Decreases exercise tolerance
• Causes inflammation of blood vessels including those in your heart
Heart disease has become the number one cause of smoking-related deaths in women. Wow.
“This finding is important to men, too, because most of us have women in our lives as wives, mothers, daughters and sisters. Everyone wants their loved ones to live longer,” Fitzpatrick said.
Women who smoke and use oral contraceptives are even more vulnerable. Smoking greatly increases their risk of coronary artery disease and stroke, compared to non-smoking women who use oral contraceptives, according to the AHA.
Quitting smoking before the age of 40 reduces the risk of dying from smoking-related disease by about 90 percent, according to CDC research. However, it’s never too late to quit. If you become one of the millions of people who quit tobacco successfully each year, you can feel benefits almost immediately and will be on your way to a longer, healthier life.
What better way to celebrate the month of love by getting your patients in a smoking cessation program at your practice. This could be the year YOU...Read more..
The draft guideline – NICE’s first on asthma – reinforces recommendations made in the 2014 BTS/SIGN asthma guideline, which also supports spirometry as the preferred initial test to assess the presence and severity of airflow obstruction.
A number of methods and assessments are available to determine the likelihood of asthma. These include measures of airflow obstruction, such as spirometry and peak flow, and measures of reversibility with bronchodilators, with both types of measure being widely used in current clinical practice.
This latest guideline aims to determine the most clinical and cost effective way to effectively diagnose people with asthma and determine the most effective monitoring strategy to ensure optimum asthma control.
The guideline stresses that to achieve an accurate diagnosis clinical tests should be used as well as checking for signs and symptoms. The process which the healthcare professional should follow in the initial assessment, and the tests to use, are presented in simple flow charts.
The draft guideline recommends spirometry as the first-line investigation for asthma in adults older than 16 and children aged 5–16 years. Healthcare professionals should regard a forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of less than 70% as a positive test for obstructive airway disease.
Further breath tests should be carried out depending on the results from spirometry and the patient’s age. For adults and young people over 5 years, healthcare professionals may need to check for levels of nitric oxide, a gas which is found in larger volumes in people with asthma, using the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) test, and carry out a bronchodilator reversibility (BDR) test. The treatment of under-5s should be based on professional judgment and observation until the child is old enough to take clinical tests.
Around 1 in 10 of adults with asthma develops the condition because they are exposed to certain substances, such as chemicals or dust, in their workplace. The draft guideline also recommends that healthcare professionals should ask employed people how their symptoms are affected by work to check if they may have occupational asthma.
Professor Mark Baker, director of clinical practice at NICE said: “Asthma is a long-term incurable condition that affects millions of people of all ages. If left untreated asthma attacks can be life threatening.
However, with appropriate treatment...Read more..
Join the American Lung Association in its effort to eliminate tobacco-caused death and disease! By taking action to prevent and reduce tobacco use in your state, you are standing with the American Lung Association to advance the fight against lung disease. As part of the American Lung Association Action Network, you can also take action to reduce other lung diseases and support our efforts to make indoor and outdoor air safe to breathe. Thank you for taking action!
Help the American Lung Association implement its road map to eliminate tobacco-caused death and disease in the U.S. Elected officials must take action to pass the tobacco control policies called for in State of Tobacco Control 2015 to reduce smoking rates to 10 percent by 2024 and protect everyone from secondhand smoke. Choose a specific state alert you would like to take action on at the American Lung Association Tobacco Control by clicking here.
In this New Year it is truly time for you to get serious with your practice and your patients to stomp out smoking. What better way to do so then to implement a solid Smoking Cessation program. Hold your patient’s hands, encourage them, and test them to ensure they are taking their health seriously. Join us in supporting the American Lung Association and our efforts to help others to stop smoking once and for all.
Our Smoking Cessation products can help support you in this New Year!Read more..